FANDOM


Sonic-SatAM-logo-by-Tobibrocki-1
Sonic the Hedgehog (also known as Sega's Sonic the Hedgehog and Sonic SatAM) is an American animated television series. It was story edited by Len Janson and produced by DiC Animation City. Made with the partnership of Sega of America, Inc., the show is based on the video game series. It aired two seasons on ABC from September 18, 1993, until December 3, 1994. It reran until May 1995. The series depicted Sonic as a member of a resistance movement known as the Freedom Fighters. They battled to free the planet from the evil Dr. Robotnik.

BackgroundEdit

The show's first season is set in a dystopian fantasy world. While family friendly, it explored unusual story concepts for animation. These include losing loved ones to war. At ABC's request, the second season included episodes devoted to humor, while darker episodes were reduced. Princess Sally wore a jacket beginning in the second season. In the first season she wore only a pair of boots. Also beginning in the second season, Bunnie's upper arm is no longer robotic. Further changes include a new color palette for Rotor, and a flashier look power ring creation.

The series sharply contrasts with Adventures of Sonic the Hedgehog, another cartoon series starring Sonic. It had premiered in the same month. While Adventures of Sonic the Hedgehog is lighthearted and comical, Sonic the Hedgehog featured a more complex plot and dramatic atmosphere. This series is the primary inspiration for the Archie comic book series. It continues to use elements and characters from the cartoon.

After the series' initial run, it was aired on the USA Network's Action Extreme Team in reruns from June 1997 to January 1998. Reruns aired in syndication from 2004 to 2005.

The series aired in Canada on the CTV Network, with a bonus summer run between June 10 and September 2, 1995, that ABC did not replicate (they instead replaced it with reruns of Free Willy until September 2, 1995). Sonic the Hedgehog has not been rerun in Canada since its cancellation on CTV.

It initially had a complete run on the UK television channel Channel 4 from 1994 to 1996. Season one was broadcast in the Republic of Ireland on RTÉ Two in December 1994.

Plot SummaryEdit

Seasons 1-2Edit

The show takes place on a planet called Mobius. A warlord and former scientist named Dr. Robotnik (voiced by Jim Cummings), and his assistant/nephew Snively (voiced by Charlie Adler), invaded and conquered Mobotropolis, the capital city of Mobius, with an army of robot soldiers called SWATbots.

The show's backstory explains that Robotnik had once been leader of the Mobotropolis War Ministry, and that his creation and use of SWATbots led the country's victory in "The Great War". In the war's aftermath, he was to be appointed Minister of Science by the King of Mobius, who had decided to close the War Ministry and dismantle the SWATbots following the War. However, Robotnik overthrew the kingdom and declared himself to be the new King. King Acorn was never seen or heard from again.

Robotnik captures most of the citizens, including an intelligent old hedgehog named Sir Charles Hedgehog (Sonic's uncle) and his crowning invention, the Roboticizer. This invention, created with the intention to prolong life, changes living creatures into robots, but had the unintended effect of robbing the individual of their free will. Robotnik uses this technology to enslave the population.

Some citizens managed to escape the coup, and fled to Knothole Village in the Great Forest to hide from Robotnik's army. Under Princess Sally, they formed a group called the Freedom Fighters to restore Mobius and end Robotnik's rule.

Season 3-4 Edit

Sonic Princess Sally Acorn and The Knothole Freedom Fighters Claming Their Victory over Dr. Robotnik and Snively Gone and His Doomsday Project Being Destroyed But Snively is Alive and he Achieves to take over The Robotnik Empire with the Help of Naugus They Also find Out Dr. Robotnik is Back Too !!! as Sonic Continues his quest to Free Mobius from their hands as they now count with the help on some New Freedom Fighter Members. Sonic and Sally Also get Married go on a Honeymoon and Get their own House Same with Bunnie and Antoine Too and Sonic and Antoine Are Friends Now.

ArtworksEdit

Renders 2DEdit

Characters Edit

Team SonicEdit

  • Sonic the Hedgehog (voiced by Jaleel White and Josh Keaton Tahj Mowry as younger Sonic) - Sonic is the 15 year old titular person and the protagonist of the series. He is a courageous and cunning hedgehog. Possessing a defiant attitude, he is able to run at supersonic speeds. A capable fighter, he is selfless and direct in dangerous circumstances. He greatly misses his uncle, Sir Charles, who was roboticized. He is the only one able to use the Power Rings, usually to increase his speed. In season one, he appeared to be intelligent with a natural flair for cunning plans. In season two, his egotism and foolishness were embellished.
  • Miles "Tails" Prower (voiced by Bradley Pierce, E.G Daily and Brianne Siddall) - Tails is the 10 year old younger-brother figure to Sonic, whom he idolizes. Tails is the youngest Freedom Fighter (since the season two episode "Drood Hedge"). Often left behind in Knothole Village during missions, he is incredibly bright (also if season three was produced, he would have matured and played a much larger role as an official member of the Freedom Fighter team, even showing a bit of a rebellious side).
  • Knuckles the Echidna (voiced by Brian Drummond and Scott Menville) - Knuckles is the 16 year old. Sonic's friendly rival. First introduced in the show Sonic Satam and Sonic Underground, Knuckles lives on Angel Island, which hovers in the sky due to the power of the Master Emerald. As the last surviving member of the Echidna people who once inhabited the island, his duty is to guard the master Emerald.
  • Princess Sally Acorn (voiced by Kath Soucie and Tara Strong, Dana Hill as younger Sally) - Sally is the 15 year old princess of Planet Mobius and Sonic's love interest. She is the strategist and leader of the Knothole Freedom Fighters. Sally hacks into Robotnik's computers to find important targets in Robotropolis. Intelligent and cautious, Sally also shows egotism and spontaneity in many instances. She refuses to believe that her father is dead, and continues to search for him. In season one, Sally was more self righteous and competitive towards Sonic, leading to blunders of her own. In season two however, she is more mellow and competent, usually playing the Straight Man of each mission.
  • Cream the Rabbit (voiced by Sonja Ball) - Cream is the 8 year old and is Bunnie Rabbot's Little Sister. She is a peach colored rabbit constantly accompanied by her Chao, Cheese. Their names were based on "cream cheese." Cream is portrayed as being naive because of being brought up like a princess by her big sister, Bunnie and mother, Vanilla. She always politely minds her manners, but sometimes acts childishly. Cream can achieve flight for short periods of time by flapping with her two large ears. She has a constant companion in Cheese, a blue chao with a red bow-tie that often attacks on Cream's behalf by ramming into her adversaries.
  • Amy Rose (voiced by Hynden Walch,Lisa Ortiz, Cherami Leigh and Janice Kawaye) - Amy is the 12 year old. She is a pink girl hedgehog who is Sonic's Best Friend. Amy has a Huge Crush on Sonic but She knows that Sonic is in Love with Sally but Sonic and Amy are still good friends with each other Sally too. Her first appearance in the new cartoons was in Sonic SatAM, introduced and kidnapped by Metal Sonic, although she was alluded to close friend "Princess Sally Acorn" in the Western game manuals, in order to tie in with the cartoon.

Team FreedomEdit

  • Antoine D'Coolette (voiced by Rob Paulsen Phil Hayes as Younger Antoine) - Antoine is clumsy, cowardly, pompous, coyote who speaks with a French accent and uses French mannerisms. He is a member of the Freedom Fighters. He often has trouble speaking English. He also has a crush on Sally. His rival was Sonic, who would make fun of Antoine for his shortcomings. His clumsiness often gets himself or other Freedom Fighters into trouble. In the first season, he was often portrayed as being intelligent, if too arrogant and fearful to be of much use. In the second season, his clumsiness and cowardice became more exaggerated.
  • Bunnie Rabbot (voiced by Christine Cavanaugh and Nancy Cartwright) - Bunnie is a friendly cyborg rabbit with a southern accent, Bunnie was briefly captured, and had half of her body roboticized before she was saved, mid-transformation. Now her left arm and both her legs are mechanical. These robotic features, in addition to skill in martial arts, make her the brawn of the Freedom Fighters. Despite these advantages, she greatly desires to be normal again.
  • Rotor The Walrus (voiced by Mark Ballou and Cam Brainard) - Rotor is a walrus who is the mechanic of the Freedom Fighters. He invents reliable gadgets for the Freedom Fighters in Knothole and on their missions. In season one, he accompanies the other Freedom Fighters on many missions. In the second season, he was completely redesigned, had a replacement voice actor, and stays behind to work instead of going on missions.
  • Manic the Hedgehog (voiced by Jaleel White,Tom Kenny and Bryce Papenbrook) - Manic is a cool and calculating hedgehog and was raised by thieves, and is a master of their trade. When Manic met his siblings, they disapproved of his thieving tendencies, but his skills as a lock-pick were greatly appreciated. Manic possesses neither Sonic's speed nor Sonia's spin-attack, thus making him the only member of the Sonic Underground who relies on entirely on his medallion for superpowers of his own. Despite his lack of superpowers, his thieving skills proves himself extremely useful to the group from time to time. Manic is the drummer of the Sonic Underground. His medallion turns into drums, which can cause earthquakes; the Oracle of Delphius claims that his drums are the most powerful instruments of the three. His medallion's string is blue. Like Sonic and Sonia.His singing voice was done by Tyley Ross.
  • Cosmo the Seedrian (voiced by Cree Summer) - Cosmo is the 10 year old, Is a character from the Sonic the Hedgehog series. She was originally created as a single-purpose character for the television series Sonic The Hedgehog (SatAM) as a close friend for Tails. And, she is with his good friends like Manic and Sonia called the Team Undgerground play the show Sonic The Hedgehog: Musical.
  • Sonia the Hedgehog (voiced by Jaleel White,Lindsay Ridgeway and Alison Viktorin) - The only female member of the Sonic Underground and the sister of Sonic and Manic. Unlike her brothers, she was raised by an aristocratic foster family, giving her an upper class mentality. She hates getting dirty, is skilled at gymnastics and karate, and possesses superhuman strength, a photographic memory, and the ability to spin in a cyclonic manner similar to the Tasmanian Devil and Espio the Chameleon. Her medallion turns into a keyboard, which can fire laser blasts from one end, or create a pink mist when the keys are played. Sonia has a pink motorcycle which can travel as fast as Sonic (it was destroyed in the 36th episode). Of the siblings, Sonia is the only one to be seen involved in any romance, displaying feelings for her childhood friend Bartleby, despite his snobbishness, as well as other men encountered in her travels. Among these is Knuckles, whom she develops an attraction to during the series' Flying Fortress saga. Her singing voice was provided by Louise Vallance.

Team Fighters Edit

  • Shadow the Hedgehog (voiced by Jason Marsden,Steven Blum and Johnny Yong Bosch) Is a Cool And Calm Under Pressure Hedgehog He Likes Sonic He Does Not Want To Destroy Mobius He Wants To Protect It.
  • Rouge the Bat (voiced by Jennifer Hale) is a smart, sassy and seductive female bat. She is a treasure hunter who specializes in jewels, and she always gets what she wants. She might have a secret  in Knuckles, since some things never change after all. She might appear to be ditsy at first blush, but she is a calculating realist who acts on her mercenary instincts.
  • E-123 Omega (voiced by Frank Welker, Jason David Frank and Vic Mognogna) He Is A Good Robot Who Has A Good Personality He Hangs With Shadow The Hedgehog and Rouge The Bat.
  • Blaze the Cat (voiced by Brandy Norwood,Erica Mendez) She Is A Good Friends With Sonic, Sally, and the Others.She's a Kind Hearted Caring And Cool Under Pressure Cat.When She Gets Mad At Robotnik and Snively She Really Lets Out Her Bad Side and Puts Fire On Them.
  • Silver the Hedgehog (voiced by Michael J.Fox, Brad Hawkins and Todd Haberkorn) Has A Kind Personality When He Gets Sees His Friends Get Hurt by Robotnik He Gets Angry.
  • Marine the Raccoon (voiced by Wendee Lee) Has A Kind Personality And Speaks With A Pirate Accent.

Team Chaotix Edit

  • Espio the Chameleon (voiced by Davi Kaufman) Is A Ninja He Is Silent Quick On His Feet He Has A Kind Heart To His Friends When Robotnik Makes Him Mad.
  • Charmy Bee (voiced by Bryce Papenbrook) Is Annoying But Caring To His Friends.
  • Vector the Crocodile (voiced by Arthur Burghardt,Carlos Knight and Khary Payton) Is Cool With Attitude He Totally Gets Fired Up. He Also Has A Hardcore Detective Personality.

Team Big Edit

  • Big the Cat (voiced by Kyle Hebert) is a simple-minded, 18-year-old purple tabby cat who lives in the jungle surrounding the Mystic Ruins. He seems to be a fisher for a , and he lives with his friend/pet, Froggy (Kaeru-kun). 
  • Tikal the Echidna (voiced by Karen Neill) Is a kindhearted and gentle pacifist, Tikal is extremely compassionate and non-discriminatory. She strongly opposes greed and conflict and wishes to see nothing more than peace, harmony and tranquility. Despite this, she does seem to have her moments of oversight. She often chooses the quickest path that will restore immediate peace, rather than what might restore harmony and be for the greater good of everyone involved. Still, her heart is in the right place and she's quick to forgive and forget.
  • E-102 Gamma (voiced by Frank Welker) Being one of Dr. Robotnik's badniks (or "clunkers", as Sonic called him), gives Gamma various different modes of mechanical locomotion, including temporary flight, and wheeled mode. E-102 Use to work for Robotnik But Then He Joined Sonic and the Others.

Team Boom Girls Edit

  • Sticks the Badger (voiced by Nika Futterman) is the 10 year old. Sticks the Badger is one of the main characters in the Sonic Satam series. She is a wacky anthropomorphic jungle badger and a force of nature in every way. She has spent most of her life  alone and flourishing in the wilderness and is as such new to friends in general. After meeting Team Sonic, however, she  a strong bond with the group, particularly with Amy Rose, and joined the team as their wild card in their ongoing battles against Dr. Robotnik. Most notably, Sticks is one of the few residents of her reality to have taken part in the multiverse-wide battle against the evil.
  • Zooey the Fox (voiced by Jen Taylor) - Zooey is a character who appears in the Sonic Satam television series. She is an anthropomorphic fox who lives on far away Bygone Island and is a close friend to Miles "Tails" Prower.
  • Perci the Bandicoot (voiced by Erin Fitzgerald) - is a character that appears in the Sonic Satam series. She is an anthropomorphic bandicoot who lives in far away Hedgehog Village and is famous throughout her Village for her beauty.

The Other FriendsEdit

  • Nicole (voiced by Kath Soucie) - Nicole is a highly advanced, artificially intelligent portable personal computer that Sally uses to analyze and hack into Robotnik's machines. While generally a formal computer, in the episode "Super Sonic", it copies Sonic's lingo so he can understand what it says, much to the bemusement of Sally. Comments by Sonic indicate that Sally received Nicole from her father, who programmed her with a great deal of information, some of which was barred from access until Sally came of age.
  • Sir Dr Charles Hedgehog (voiced by William Windom and Frank Welker) - Known as "Uncle Chuck," he is an elderly inventor, as well as Sonic's warmhearted uncle. Chuck invented the Roboticizer to allow people to live longer, but it had the unintended effect of robbing an individual of their free will. Robotnik later stole it and used it on him, turning him into one of many mindless drones and destroyed his "restaurant", Uncle Chuck's Chilli Dogs. With great difficulty, he regains control of his body and acts as a spy for the Freedom Fighters.
  • Rosie the Woodchuck (voiced by April Winchell) was Sally's sugary sweet and unbearably beautiful nanny. In the two-part episode Blast to the Past, it was revealed that Rosie was captured by SWATbots and was roboticized. Her fate was prevented when the future Sonic and Sally saved her. Rosie currently lives in Knothole.
  • King Maximillian Acorn (voiced by Tim Curry) - King Acorn is the rightful King of Mobius, and father to Princess Sally Acorn. He was dethroned during a coup immediately following the Great War, and banished to the Void, a crystalline universe from which none can escape.
  • Dulcy the Dragon (voiced by Cree Summer) - Dulcy is a clumsy, loud-mouthed, young dragon who joined the Freedom Fighters in the second season. She often flies the Freedom Fighters to their destinations or rescues them. She also has powerful lungs, which can be used to blow enemies away, or freeze them solid with ice breath. She is terrible at landing, and often crashes into things mid-flight. She would have come into her full powers, if the show had a third season.
  • Griff the Goat (voiced by Charlie Schlatter) is the leader of a city located underground called Mobius.
  • Lupe the Wolf (voiced by Shari Belafonte) is the lovely leader of the Freedom Fighters called the Wolf Pack. Her village was attacked by Robotnik's forces and most of her people were roboticized. The scar she wears on her face reminds her of that day.
  • Ari the Ram (voiced by Dorian Harewood) was the leader of a group of Freedom Fighters which were captured by Dr. Robotnik. In exchange for their freedom, Ari reluctantly agreed to make a deal with him to help him capture Sonic. Robotnik broke his promise and instead of being roboticized When Robotnik was about to  Sonic into the Void, Ari saved Sonic and was sucked into the portal instead. Later, Ari was rescued by Sonic. In the final episode of season 2, Ari helped the other Freedom Fighters in the destruction of the Doomsday Project, but was captured. He was eventually saved by Sonic and Sally.
  • Cat (voiced by William Windom and Frank Welker) was the oldest Freedom Fighter in Knothole. On a mission in Robotropolis, he was captured by SWATbots, thanks to Antoine's bungling. His current fate is unknown.
  • Palo the Rhino (voiced by Jim Cummings) and Dirk the Bear (voiced by Micheal Bell) are the leaders of two Freedom Fighter groups. They appeared at the end of the episode Cry Of The Wolf. They were introduced in the final episode The Doomsday Project, yet they had no dialogue whatsoever. They set out to raid Robotnik's station, only to be captured. After Sonic and Sally used the Deep Power Stones to destroy the machine, everyone escaped.
  • Lazaar (voiced by Dan Castelanetta) is a wizard who was evil. One-hundred years ago, Lazaar caused great evil with his spell , but at some point, he regretted it and sometime later he started to hibernate in Robotropolis' Forbidden Zone, where his guardian protects him.
  • Lazaar's guardian (voiced by Maurice LaMarche) watches over him as he sleeps in the Forbidden Zone. He is a shadowy cloaked figure who can shoot red beams from his eyes. Wealth means nothing to him. Other than that, not much else is known about him.

VillainsEdit

  • Dr. Julian Robotnik (voiced by Jim Cummings) - Dr. Robotnik is the madman who conquered Mobotropolis ten years earlier. He is a brilliant, yet heartless warlord seeking nothing less than to encompass the whole world in his machinery and robotic minions. His goals are constantly thwarted by Sonic the Hedgehog, his sworn nemesis. His hatred for the hedgehog has turned into a desperate obsession to capture and roboticize Sonic himself, which is often his own undoing. He was later defeated in the episode Doomsday Project. In season one, Robotnik was portrayed as a fearsome dictator and he had a deep echo to his voice. As season two was more lighthearted than season one, Robotnik was later depicted as a cruel but more buffoonish villain rather than the fierce and intimidating foe he was originally shown to be, and he no longer had a deep echo to his voice.
  • Snively (voiced by Charlie Adler) - Snively is Dr. Robotnik's miserable underling and assistant, as well as his nephew. Snively is constantly abused, teased and intimidated by his uncle. In season one, Snively appeared to be loyal to Robotnik. In season two, Snively was shown to despise Robotnik and talk about him and make plans behind his back. "Blast to the Past" revealed that he once had a full head of hair of which he was very proud, only to lose most of it to a time-traveling Sonic. Snively's intelligence easily rivals his uncle's, but this trait is ignored. After Robotnik is defeated in "Doomsday Project", Snively himself plans to take over and run all of Robotropolis.
  • Naugus (voiced by Michael Bell) - Naugus is a powerful sorcerer of unknown species, formerly Dr. Robotnik's mentor. He hates Robotnik for betraying and imprisoning him within the Void during The Great War. He wants nothing more than to see Robotnik suffer, but he cannot exist outside the Void for any extended amount of time. He was scheduled to reappear as one of the main villains in Season 3 alongside Snively before it was cancelled.
  • The Nasty Hyenas (voiced by Jim Cummings, Alaina Reed Hall and others) are a cannibalistic  gang who are from a tribe who always eat their king.
  • The Kraken (voiced by Frank Welker) was once a ruler of an underground kingdom, until Dr. Robotnik's diggings destroyed it and his people. One of Robotnik's snake probes attacked him and Sonic saved him. In return, the Kraken gives Sonic a bottle of magic  to revive the plants.
  • Scratch and Grounder are two robot characters From Adventures of Sonic the Hedgehog who appeared in satam, Scratch (voiced by Phil Hayes) and Grounder (voiced by Garry Chalk)
  • Coconuts (voiced by Ian James Corlett,Charlie Schlatter and John Kassir) is the Robot from Adventures of sonic the Hedgehog who Appeared in satam.
  • Metal Sonic (voiced by Frank Welker) a robot created by robotnik who looks like sonic to destroy the Real Sonic.
  • SWATbots (voiced by Frank Welker, Jack Angel, Thurl Ravenscroft, Will Ryan (Pilot), Jim Cummings, Peter Renaday (Pilot) and John Kassir in Pilot) - The SWATbots are Robotnik's primary police and military unit. Designed as super-soldiers, these machines won the Great War prior to Robotnik's takeover. Now, they are his special defense force, making up a substantial part of Robotropolis' "population".

EpisodesEdit

Main article: List of Sonic the Hedgehog (SatAM) Episodes

QuotesEdit

Main article: Sonic the Hedgehog (SatAM)/Quotes

VideosEdit

IntroEdit


Voice ActorsEdit


Voice ClipsEdit


Voice Reel DemosEdit

Voice Cast Edit

  • Jaleel White/Josh Keaton as Sonic the Hedgehog
  • Tahj Mowry as Younger Sonic
  • Bradley Pierce/E.G Daily/Brianne Siddall as Miles "Tails" Prower
  • Brain Drummond/Scott Menville as Knuckles the Echidna
  • Kath Soucie/Tara Strong as Princess Sally Acorn
  • Dana Hill as Younger Sally
  • Kath Soucie as NICOLE
  • Sonja Ball as Cream the Rabbit
  • Hynden Walch/Lisa Ortiz/Cherami Leigh/Janice Kawaye as Amy Rose
  • Rob Paulsen as Antoine D'Coolette
  • Christine Cavanaugh/Nancy Cartwright as Bunnie Rabbot
  • Mark Ballou/Cam Brainard as Rotor The Walrus
  • Jaleel White/Tom Kenny/Bryce Papenbrook as Manic the Hedgehog
  • Cree Summer as Cosmo the Seedrian and Dulcy the Dragon
  • Jaleel White/Lindsay Ridgeway/Alison Viktorin as Sonia the Hedgehog
  • Jason Marsden/Steven Blum/Johnny Yong Bosch as Shadow the Hedgehog
  • Jennifer Hale as Rouge the Bat
  • Frank Welker/Jason David Frank/Vic Mognogna as E-123 Omega
  • Brandy Norwood/Erica Mendez as Blaze the Cat
  • Michael J. Fox/Brad Hawkins/Todd Haberkorn as Silver the Hedgehog
  • Wendee Lee as Marine the Raccoon
  • Davi Kaufman as Espio the Chameleon
  • Bryce Papenbrook as Charmy Bee
  • Arthur Burghardt/Carlos Knight/Khary Payton as Vector the Crocodile
  • Kyle Hebert as Big the Cat
  • Karen Neill as Tikal the Echidna
  • Nika Futterman as Sticks the Badger
  • Jen Taylor as Zooey the Fox
  • Erin Fitzgerald as Perci the Bandicoot
  • William Windom/Frank Welker as Sir Dr Charles Hedgehog and Cat
  • April Winchell as Rosie the Woodchuck
  • Charlie Schlatter as Griff the Goat
  • Shari Belafonte as Lupe the Wolf
  • Dorian Harewood as Ari the Ram
  • Alaina Reed Hall as Sabina the Dragon
  • Tim Curry as King Maximillian Acorn
  • Jim Cummings as Dr. Julian Robotnik and Palo the Rino
  • Charlie Alder as Snively
  • Michael Bell as Ixis Naugus and Dirk the Bear
  • Dan Castelanetta as Lazaar
  • Maurice Lamarche as Lazaar's Guardian
  • Frank Welker as the Kraken E-102 Gamma Metal Sonic and SWATbots
  • Jim Cummings and Alaina Reed Hall as the Nasty Hyenas
  • Phil Hayes as Scratch and Younger Antoine
  • Garry Chalk as Grounder
  • Ian James Corlett/Charlie Schlatter/John Kassir as Coconuts

Deceased Voice Cast Members Who Died Edit

  • Christine Cavanaugh
  • William Windom
  • Alaina Reed Hall
  • Dana Hill
Community content is available under CC-BY-SA unless otherwise noted.